School of Leadership and Management
- Master in Leadership and Management
- Doctor of Leadership and Management
- PHD in Leadeship and Management
A leadership study is a multidisciplinary academic field of study that focuses on leadership in organizational contexts and in human life. Leadership studies has origins in the social sciences (e.g., sociology, anthropology, psychology), in humanities (e.g., history and philosophy), as well as in professional and applied fields of study (e.g., management and education). The field of leadership studies is closely linked to the field of organizational studies.
Leadership is “organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal.” The leader may or may not have any formal authority. Students of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and values, charisma, and intelligence among others.
As an academic area of inquiry, the study of leadership has been of interest to scholars from a wide variety of disciplinary backgrounds. Today, there are numerous academic programs (spanning several academic colleges and departments) related to the study of leadership. Leadership degree programs generally relate to: aspects of Leadership, Leadership Studies, and Organizational Leadership (although there are a number of leadership-oriented concentrations in other academic areas)
Leadership can be perceived as a particularly emotion-laden process, with emotions entwined with the social influence process. In an organization, the leader’s mood has some effects on his/her group. These effects can be described in 3 levels:
- The mood of individual group members. Group members with leaders in a positive mood experience more positive mood than do group members with leaders in a negative mood. The leaders transmit their moods to other group members through the mechanism of emotional contagion. Mood contagion may be one of the psychological mechanisms by which charismatic leaders influence followers.
- The affective tone of the group. Group affective tone represents the consistent or homogeneous affective reactions within a group. Group affective tone is an aggregate of the moods of the individual members of the group and refers to mood at the group level of analysis. Groups with leaders in a positive mood have a more positive affective tone than do groups with leaders in a negative mood.
- Group processes like coordination, effort expenditure, and task strategy. Public expressions of mood impact how group members think and act. When people experience and express mood, they send signals to others. Leaders signal their goals, intentions, and attitudes through their expressions of moods. For example, expressions of positive moods by leaders signal that leaders deem progress toward goals to be good. The group members respond to those signals cognitively and behaviorally in ways that are reflected in the group processes.
Management in all business areas and organizational activities are the acts of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.
Because organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to ‘manage’ oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.
Management can also refer to the person or people who perform the act(s) of management.
The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially tools), which in turn derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Some definitions of management are:
- Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials, and money. According to the management guru Peter Druker (1909–2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation.
- Directors and managers have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise. As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firm’s resources to achieve the policy’s objectives. The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large firms the board of directors formulates the policy which is implemented by the chief executive officer.
At the beginning, one thinks of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan; or as the actions taken to reach one’s intended goal. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, FrenchmanHenri FAvol (1841 -1925) considers management to consist of six function :forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling. He was one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.
Another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), who wrote on the topic in the early twentieth century, defined management as “the art of getting things done through people”. She described management as philosophy.
Some people, however, find this definition, while useful, far too narrow. The phrase “management is what managers do” occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of defining management, the shifting nature of definitions, and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or class.
One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to “business administration” and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. More realistically, however, every organization must manage its work, people, processes, technology, etc. in order to maximize its effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments which teach management as “business schools.” Some institutions (such as the Harvard Business School) use that name while others (such as the Yale School of Management) employ the more inclusive term “management.”
English speakers may also use the term “management” or “the management” as a collective word describing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation. Historically this use of the term was often contrasted with the term “Labor” referring to those being managed.
In for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range of stakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valued products at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employment opportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; but this occurs only very rarely.
Some functions and Roles but not limited to
Management operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing, staffing, leading/directing, and controlling/monitoring.i.e
- Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next 5 years, etc.) and generating plans for action.
- Organizing: (Implementation) making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans.
- Staffing: Job Analyzing, recruitment, and hiring individuals for appropriate jobs.
- Leading/Directing: Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it.
- Controlling/Monitoring: Checking progress against plans.
- Motivation : Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. If motivation doesn’t take place in an organization, then employees may not contribute to the other functions (which are usually set by top level management).
Formation of the business policy
- The mission of the business is the most obvious purpose—which may be, for example, to make soap.
- The vision of the business reflects its aspirations and specifies its intended direction or future destination.
- The objectives of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed.
- The business’s policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers’ decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees.
- The business’s strategy refers to the coordinated plan of action that it is going to take, as well as the resources that it will use, to realize its vision and long-term objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to allocate and utilize the factors of production to the business’s advantage. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form.
Implementation of policies and strategies
- All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff.
- Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies.
- A plan of action must be devised for each department.
- Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly.
- Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes.
- Assessments of progress ought to be carried out regularly by top-level managers.
- A good environment and team spirit is required within the business.
- The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analysed to determine their roles in achieving the business’s mission.
- The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the business’s future environment.
- A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.